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  1. #16
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Excerpts from Abraham Lincoln’s Legacy By Roy Cook

    "Some USA groups are planning a celebration of the 200th anniversary of President Abraham Lincoln’s birth on Febuary12, 2009. There are some bitter views as to his legacy with the First Americans. Also it is a tragic irony that his personage is on display on the Black Hills of the Dakota. Examine the political and legal issues of this tragic Minnesota affair under his watch. It is the largest mass execution of American people in the history of the United States."

    "The revered Anglo- Saxon principle of law that a person is considered innocent until proven guilty was reversed in the case of the Indians. Authorities in Minnesota asked President Lincoln to order the immediate execution of all 303 Indian males found guilty. President Lincoln was under heavy political pressure to acknowledge states rights but he objected to what he viewed as wholesale slaughter. Lincoln was concerned with how this would play with the Europeans, whom he was afraid were about to enter the war on the side of the South. He wired the commanding officer to stay the executions and forward the "full and complete record of each conviction." He also ordered that any material that would discriminate the guilty from the questionable be included with the trial transcripts. Lincoln and Justice Department officials reviewed every case. Episcopalian Bishop Whipple pleaded for clemency but Military leaders and the Minnesota state politicians warned Lincoln that anything less than large-scale hangings would result in widespread white outrage and more violence against the Indians. After review, the president pardoned 265 of the 303 condemned Indians, approving a total of 38 executions. He offered the following compromise to the politicians of Minnesota: If they would pare the list of those to be hung down to 39. In return, Lincoln promised to kill or remove every Indian from the state and provide Minnesota with 2 million dollars in federal funds. This eagerness to buy cooperation from the state in spite of the fact that the Federal government still owed the Sioux 1.4 million for the land is both tragic and ironic."

    "So, on December 26, 1862, the Great Emancipator ordered the largest mass execution in American History, where the guilt of those to be executed was entirely in doubt. After 38 of the condemned men were hanged on the 26 of December, the day after Christmas, in 1862 in what remains the largest mass hanging in United States history, the other prisoners continued to suffer in the concentration camps through the winter of 1862-63."
    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  2. #17
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Just a quick google of "Stand Watie" and the "Knights of the Golden Circle" indicated the following.
    Now I am not saying that these are correct, only that they were found on the internet.
    Now can I prove that Stand Watie was a member of the KGC or anything else? Can I even prove that he even lived or was a General or a Confederate or an Indian. No not really, not unless you believe everything you read. So if anyone tells me that Stand Watie was a Cherokee I will just have to say "prove it".

    "In 1861 the Civil War broke out and Stand Watie organized a small private army which called itself the “Knights of the Golden Circle.” He was soon commissioned as a colonel in the First Cherokee Mounted Rifles, a unit of the Confederate Army."

    March, 1861
    Elias C. Boudinot, Stand Watie’s nephew, elected Secretary of the Arkansas Secession Convention. Watie organized pro-Southern Secret Society called the “Knights of the Golden Circle” which later became “The Southern Rights Party.” Watie also raised guerilla company of Cherokees to assist the south.

    The site below all clone the same article:
    "Stand Watie assumed the leadership of the Ridge-Watie-Boundinot faction and was involved in a long-running blood feud with the followers of John Ross. He also was a leader of the Knights of the Golden Circle, which bitterly opposed abolitionism."
    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  3. #18
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    The Stand Watie Society http://standwatie.org/
    Stand Watie (De-ga-do-ga) was born Dec. 12, 1806, near Rome Georgia, and died Sept. 9, 1871, at his home on Honey Creek in Delaware County, Oklahoma, near the northwest corner of Arkansas. He learned to read and write English at a mission school in Georgia, and occasionally helped write for the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper (after Sequoyah developed the 86-symbol Cherokee syllabary in 1821) with his brother Buck Watie (who took the name of Elias Boudinot from a white benefactor). His father David Watie (or Oowatie) was the brother of Major Ridge, and the Ridge-Watie families became wealthy slave-owning planters in the new Cherokee constitutional republic that replaced tribal government in 1827. The state of Georgia opposed any form of tribal government and in 1828 began to pass repressive anti-Indian laws without any recourse for the Cherokee in state courts. After gold was discovered on Cherokee lands in northern Georgia, 3000 white settlers poached on Indian lands. Only the treaties with the federal government gave Indians protection from the states. The Supreme Court under John Marshall declared the repressive state laws null and void in the 1832 Worcester v. Georgia case, but President Jackson refused to enforce the court's decision. In 1832, Georgia confiscated most of the Cherokee land, including the estates of John Ross, and sold them in a land lottery to whites. The Georgia militia entered the Cherokee capital of New Chota and destroyed the Cherokee Phoenix.

    The Ridge-Watie faction allied with President Andrew Jackson to sign the New Echota Treaty Dec. 29, 1835, that required Cherokees to leave Georgia in return for 800,000 acres in the Indian Territory and $15 million. The Treaty was opposed by tribal chief John Ross and the Council and most Cherokees who refused to leave their homes in Georgia. The Ridge-Watie group led the voluntary removal of 2000 Cherokees from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1837, but Ross and 10,000 others were forced out on the "Trail of Tears" in 1838. Some members of the anti-treaty party decided to kill the leaders of the Treaty Party at a secret meeting at Double Springs on June 21, 1838, and the next day killed Major Ridge and John Ridge and Elias Boudinot. The executions were justified by a clause of the Cherokee Constitution that authorized the death penalty for anyone selling tribal land without authorization. Stand Watie was also marked for death, but was warned and escaped. The Cherokee nation was deeply divided by the experience of the Treaty and the Trail of Tears and the Ridge-Boudinot murders. Watie formed a band of warriors for protection and refused to disband after Ross complained to the Jackson government. This internal civil war lasted until a truce was established in 1846 and Stand Watie joined the Tribal Council 1845-1861 (although Ross would remain the official elected Principal Chief until his death in 1866) presiding over a Cherokee population of 21,000 in the Indian Territory in 1861.

    Watie served as a member of the Southern Cherokee delegation during the negotiation of the Cherokee Reconstruction Treaty of 1866. He then abandoned public life and returned to his old home along Honey Creek. He died on September 9, 1871.
    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  4. #19
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Myths of the Cherokee By James Mooney. From Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology 1897-98

    "The breaking out of the civil war in 1861 found the Cherokee
    divided in sentiment. Being slave owners, like the other Indians
    removed from the southern states, and surrounded by southern influ-
    ences, the agents in charge being themselves southern sympathizers,
    a considerable party in each of the tribes was disposed to take active
    part with the Confederacy. The old Ridge party, headed by Stand
    Watie and supported by the secret secession organization known as
    the Knights of the Golden Circle, declared for the Confederacy. The
    National party, headed by John Ross and supported by the patriotic
    organization known as the Kitoowah society — whose members were
    afterward known as Pin Indians — declared for strict neutrality. At
    last, however, the pressure became too strong to be resisted, and on
    October 7, 1861, a treaty was concluded at Tahlequah, with General
    Albert Pike, commissioner for the Confederate states, by which the
    Cherokee Nation cast its lot with the Confederacy, as the Creeks,
    Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Osage, Comanche, and several smaller
    tribes had already done."

    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  5. #20
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Famous Native American Freemasons
    Stand Watie Leader of Cherokee Nation and canonized as the last Confederate General to Surrender
    Elias C. Boudinot Leader of the Southern Cherokee during the Civil War
    John Ridge Leader of the Cherokee Nation and Advisor to the Muscogee

    "Of the five tribes, Pike had most trouble with the Cherokee. Their leader was John Ross, a full-blood opposed to slavery. However, another senior member of the Cherokee was Stand Watie, who was also leader of the Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC). Ross refused to sign a treaty with Pike. Pike threatened Ross,
    "If he refuses, he will learn that his country is occupied; and I shall then negotiate with the leaders of the half-breeds who are now raising troops".
    Around May 1861, a faction of Cherokee led by Stand Watie, also leader of the KGC, met with Pike to request the Confederacy to protect them from the Pins should they join the Confederacy and fight for slavery, protection which Pike agreed to give. Pike left the Cherokee and easily formed treaties with the other four tribes. Upon Pike's return to the Cherokee, Ross signed a treaty with Pike.

    Stand Watie's brother was Lone Watie, also known as Elias C Boudinot. In the spring of 1860, Pike raised Elias to the 33rd Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of Scottish Freemasonry. Elias was also the secretary to the 1861 secession convention of Arkansas, at which the Arkansas Ordinance of Secession was passed. Elias and Pike would later work together in Washington DC as lawyers."

    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  6. #21
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Excerpts from The Keetoowah Society and the Avocation of Religious Nationalism in the Cherokee Nation, 1855-1867 Chapter Five

    "Less than a month before the surrender of Watie, a Grand Council of the Southern Indians had been held at Armstrong Academy in the western portion of the Indian Territory for the purposes of establishing a “United Nations of the Indian Territory.” [6] The “United Nations” was presided over by the leaders of the Five Nations as well as Plains Indians who had fought on the side of the Confederacy; present at the meeting were freemasons Stand Watie, William Penn Adair, John Jumper, Samuel Checote, George Stidham, Robert Jones, Peter Pitchlyn, Chilly McIntosh, D.N. McIntosh, and Reverend J.S. Murrow. Originally planned to present a united front in dealing with an impending surrender to the Federal Government, the council quickly took on other meaning. [7]"
    [7] Dale and Lytton, 229; Wardell, 179; Foreman, 132

    "...Bloodied yet unbowed, the Confederate Indians made no mention of defeat, wrongdoing, or mistakes in judgment. They also required that any permanent treaty, i.e. terms of surrender, be ratified by the national councils of each tribe. [11]"
    [11] ibid.

    "On June 15, 1865, a second meeting of the “United Nations of the Indian Territory” ratified the positions put forward at the earlier meeting and Stand Watie appointed a commission of six delegates that would “forward the great work of establishing thorough harmony among all Indian tribes.” [12] Shortly after the council disbanded, Major General Francis Herron (Iowa Mosaic Lodge #125) sent Lieutenant Colonel Matthews as Federal peace commissioner to Doaksville, Choctaw Nation to come to terms with members of the council. When he surrendered on June 19, Chief Peter Pitchlyn (Knights Templar Washington Commandery #1) expressed the sentiments of many of the Southern Indians:

    "Our late allies in war, the Confederate armies, have long since ceased to resist the national authorities; they have all been either captured or surrendered to the forces of the United States. It therefore becomes us as brave people to forget and lay aside our prejudices and prove ourselves equal to the occasion. Let reason obtain now that the sway of our passions and let us meet in council with the proper spirit and resume our former relations with the United States. [13]
    On June 28, Stand Watie sent Knights of the Golden Circle William P. Adair and James Bell to meet with General Francis Herron to negotiate terms of surrender for the Confederate Cherokee. [14]"
    [12] Watie quoted in Wardell, 180.
    [13] United States War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, 130 Volumes, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880-1900), Vol. 67, 1105.
    [14] Franks, 182.

    "When the Keetoowah heard that Watie and the Knights of the Golden Circle sought a “thorough harmony” within the Cherokee people, it seemed that peace was truly at hand. However, when the Watie delegation arrived at Fort Gibson to present themselves to the government, they were bearing arms, bristling with defiance, and walked and talked not like a people who sought conciliation. [42] The delegation presented John Garrett, the commander of Fort Gibson, with a copy of Watie's surrender treaty which allowed for an unprecedented surrender “without demanding their paroles or their arms.”
    [42] Abel, 156

    "In October 1865, the Cherokee Council met in its entirety for the first time since the beginning of hostilities in 1861. The Fort Smith “treaties” were actually truces which provided a temporary settlement of affairs and a stable political arrangement until a more permanent treaty could be signed in Washington. However, the October Council was still dominated by the Keetoowah faction as many of the Knights of the Golden Circle were reticent to return to the active political affairs of the Nation until their security could be guaranteed. [77]"
    [77] McLoughlin, Champions of the Cherokee, 415; Wardell, 194.

    "Shortly after arriving in Washington, the Keetoowah delegation received an audience with President Andrew Johnson, Secretary Harlan, and Commissioner Cooley in the President's office in the White House. Thomas Pegg addressed the President and his representatives and presented them with the Memorial of the Delegates of the Cherokee Nation to the President of the United States and the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress. The memorial began with a discussion of the Harlan Bill, but quickly moved to the critical issues:

    When the rebellion broke out the Cherokees were divided into two parties. The loyal and the disloyal. Both had been thoroughly organized for two or three years -- and prepared for the struggle. Under the lead of Stand Watie, lately a General in the rebel army, the disloyal element, (small in numbers but backed by strong influences from the rebellious states) had been organized into “Blue Lodges,” and Knights of the Golden Circle.” The loyal masses, by a general movement of the populace, had organized themselves into a Loyal League, known as the Keetoowah Society, but by the rebels it was called, in derision, “The Pin Society.” The Loyal League embraced the great mass of the men of the Cherokee nation, especially the full-blooded Indians."

    "...the Southern delegation led by John Rollin Ridge and composed of Knights of the Golden Circle Stand Watie, Saladin Watie, Elias C. Boudinot, and William Penn Adair. They were assisted behind the scenes by the ever wily Albert Pike. Boudinot and Adair, responding in early February, noted that though the Civil War may have accentuated the divide between these two parties, their struggle went much further back in Cherokee history than the Civil War."

    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  7. #22
    Feb 2006
    Brownwood, Texas
    Garrett Scorpion Gold Stinger, Garrett Ace 350, Garrett Ace 250, Garrett Deepseeker, Dowsing Rods
    817 times
    All Types Of Treasure Hunting

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Thank you, cccalco, for setting the record straight about Stand Watie's membership in the KGC and the Cherokee's Masonic connections as well. I commend you for your research ability.
    ~Texas Jay

  8. #23

    Aug 2004
    29 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Dear ccalco;
    You wrote:
    VOICE: “Hast thou cleansed thyself from human guilt and impurity?”
    RED HAND: “ I have”.
    VOICE: “Hast thou ill will toward any of they fellow creatures?”
    RED HAND: “I have not”.
    VOICE: “Wilt thou trust and obey us, keeping thyself always chaste and valorous?”
    RED HAND: “I will”.
    VOICE: “Wilt thou hold this power with which we endow thee for thine own chosen company only?”
    RED HAND: “I will”.
    VOICE: “Wilt thou endure death or torture in its cause?”
    RED HAND: “I will”.
    VOICE: “”Wilt thou vow this secret never to be revealed save at thy death hour?’
    RED HAND: “I will”.
    VOICE: “They death hour will be revealed to thee; thou wilt be allowed to choose thy successor, and at the end of thy journey thou wilt be rewarded for faith and obedience.”(2)

    My question is, how the the American Indians learn how to speak late middle English so well?
    Your friend;

  9. #24

    Jun 2007
    10740 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    HA! EASY answer is that the rituals of the Blue Lodge of FreeMasons has similar old "BRIT style" language; AND! Some tribes in North Carolina "speak" like that in FORMAL "sessions"; it is thought that the LUMBEE Nation is descended from the BRIT Lost Colony.
    The migration from there to the mountains of WESTERN N.C., Tennessee, and SW Virginia... gave us, the "broken English" speech (BRIT), of the MELUNGEONS! PROBABLY written down that way, for "rituals purposes". The 1611 KJV BIBLE, is PROBABLY the "source", of the speech pattern... check it out.

  10. #25
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Quote Originally Posted by lamar
    My question is, how the the American Indians learn how to speak late middle English so well?
    Your friend;
    Of course it is unclear here whether the English being written is that of the native speaker or the English speaking transcriber/translator. And the English/French/Spanish spoken by the Amerindian was always representative of the first European contact. Could come through contact by trade or even contact with the missing colony at Roanoke. Early colonist often spoke of English speaking "white Indians".
    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
    Sons of Liberty and the Order of American Knights

  11. #26
    Sep 2005
    Eagle II SL90/Eagle Spectrum/TF-900
    20 times
    Honorable Mentions (1)

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><


    If we meet and you forget me...you have lost nothing.
    If you meet Jesus Christ and forget him...you have lost everything!

  12. #27

    Jun 2007
    10740 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

  13. #28
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Excerpt from: The escape and suicide of John Wilkes Booth:
    or, The first true account of Lincoln's assassination,
    containing a complete confession by Booth
    by Finis Langdon Bates, 1907

    Chapter XV. Gen. Albert Pike Identified Booth beginning page 222



    While trying to trace Booth after he left Fresno,
    California, I read a story from Col. Edward Levan,
    of Monterey, Mexico. He says that a man whom he
    believed to be Booth roomed with him during the
    winter of 1868, in Lexington, Kentucky. The two
    became quite friendly, and Col. Levan openly de-
    clared to the man, who was going by the name of
    J. J. Marr, that he believed him to be John Wilkes
    Booth. Mr. Marr did not deny the allegation, but
    shortly thereafter left Lexington, where he was
    "playing the character of a lawyer."

    Col. Levan says that he afterward learned that
    Mr. Marr had settled at Village Mills, Texas, and
    from there went to Glenrose Mills, Texas, at which
    place I first met John St. Helen, and where he de-
    clared himself to be John Wilkes Booth.

    Col. M. W. Connolly, a distinguished newspaper
    man, at present and for many years past connected
    The Veteran Mason, Statesman, Lawyer and Poet, as He
    Appeared at the Time of His Recognition of John Wilkes
    Booth at Port Worth, Texas, in 1885.
    with the leading papers as editor-in-chief, a gentle-
    man of the highest type, a brilliant writer and a man
    of honor and integrity, says :

    "I am strongly inclined to believe that David B.
    George, who died at Enid, Oklahoma Territory, was
    John Wilkes Booth, the man who killed Lincoln.

    "In 1883, while in the little town of Village Mills,
    Texas, I met George, although I never knew his
    name, and cannot say whether he went under that
    name or not. He impressed me. I had seen Edwin
    Booth once in Galveston, and had some knowledge
    of the appearance of the Booth family. Later I went
    to Fort Worth as editor of the Gazette, under the
    late Walter Malone. I had forgotten all about my
    casual acquaintance of Village Mills.

    "One night I was in the Pickwick Hotel barroom
    talking to Gen. Albert Pike, who had come down
    from Washington on legal business. I had called on
    him to inquire about a claim against the government
    in which he was interested the claim of the heirs
    of my wife's grandfather, Major Michie, of La-
    Grange, Tennessee, whose cotton and cotton gins
    were burned by the Federal troops when Grant was
    at LaGrange. Capt. Day, of Day & Maas, proprie-
    tors, was behind the bar. It was in 1884 or 1885,
    and we were unconventional then.

    "Tom Powell, mayor of Fort Worth, joined us, and
    Temple Houston, youngest son of the ex-Governor
    of Tennessee, the man who whipped Santa Anna at
    San Jaeinto, and the first president of the Texas
    republic (Gen Sam Houston), was there. I was
    about to leave, was waiting for a pause in order to
    excuse myself ; Gen. Pike was explaining how he had
    been credited with the authorship of 'The Old
    Canoe,' which he said was written by some woman;
    just then my Village Mills friend came in accom-
    panied by some one, I think Long Scurlock, who
    used to edit the Chronicle at Cleburne, Texas. Capt.
    Day turned to make a change. I was watching Gen.
    Pike closely (trying to get away), when suddenly
    he threw up his hands, his face white as his hair and
    beard, and exclaimed :

    '"My God! John Wilkes Booth!' He was much
    excited, trembled like an aspen, and at my sugges-
    tion went to his room. He seemed weakened by the
    shock, the occasion of which I could not realize at
    the moment. I saw him climb the stairs to his room
    and turned to look for my Village Mills acquaint-
    ance, but could not find him.

    "While talking to Temple Houston the next morn-
    ing I pointed out my Village Mills friend when I
    was called to Gen. Pike, who was standing on the
    opposite side of the street, and Temple Houston
    promised me that he would look the man up and get
    a story. I have heard that the alleged Booth, the
    man whom I had met, moved to the Territory later,
    but I took no newspaper interest in the matter.

    "I never saw J. Wilkes Booth, but I have seen his
    pictures, and while I am in no way certain, I am
    strongly of the belief that the man who died at Enid
    was John Wilkes Booth. I am quite sure that the
    venerable author of 'Every Year* believed it was
    the infatuated actor, and I am sure that he was
    amazed to find that his bewailment, 'There are fewer
    to regret us,' did not include the man who took a
    leading part in our great national tragedy."

    It is of interest in this connection to state that
    Fort Worth, Texas, is only about forty-fives miles
    to the northeast of Grandberry, Texas, my old home
    and St. Helen's. It was from this place, in 1878,
    that he drifted to Leadville, Colorado, and from
    thence to Fresno, California, and was next seen in
    1884 or 1885 at Fort Worth, Texas, near his old
    home, by Gen. Albert Pike, in company with M.
    W. Connolly, and by Gen. Pike recognized as John
    Wilkes Booth.

    The man supposed to be Booth was seen by others
    before he settled at Glenrose Mills, for Dr. H. W.
    Gay says :

    "I knew John Wilkes Booth in 1857, and while I
    was at Fort Donaldson, a prisoner of war, the news
    was flashed over the world that President Lincoln
    had been slain by John Wilkes Booth. I was horri-
    fied to think of such a thing, for Booth, though a
    boy when I knew him, in appearance was the most
    accomplished gentleman with whom I had ever come
    in contact. All who knew him well were captivated
    by him. He was the most hospitable, genial fellow
    to be met, and when drinking or much in company,
    he was always quoting Shakespeare, or some other
    poet. How many times have I seen him strike a
    tragic attitude and exclaim:

    O'The aspiring youth who fires the Ephesians dome
    Outlives in fame the pious fools who reared it.'

    "I read of his capture and death and never
    doubted it until the year 1869. I was then living in
    what is now Tate county, Mississippi. One evening
    about dusk a man came to my house claiming that
    he was one of the Ku-Klux Clan run out of Arkansas
    by Clayton's militia (the Clayton referred to being
    Powell Clayton, until recently Ambassador to Mexico).

    "I soon recognized this man as an erratic fellow.
    During his stay at my house he told me that John
    Wilkes Booth was not killed, but made his escape
    and spent a short while in Mexico with Maximilian 's
    army, but got into trouble, and his life was saved
    by reason of the fact that he was a Catholic. The
    man also stated that during Booth's short stay in
    Mexico he had lived in disguise as an itinerant Cath-
    olic priest. He also told me the story of how Booth
    had escaped after the assassination was done, and it
    corresponded exactly with Mr. Bates' story as told
    by John St. Helen, even to the crossing of the Mis-
    sissippi river at Catfish Point and going thence up
    the Arkansas river to Indian Territory. And that
    Booth afterward met Junius Brutus Booth and his
    mother in San Francisco."

    This meeting was possibly arranged while John
    Wilkes Booth was in the Indian Territory, and may
    explain in some measure his employment to drive a
    team from Nebraska City, Nebraska, to Salt Lake,
    Utah, for Mr. L. Treadkel, in 1866 or 1867, and his
    unceremonious desertion of duty before reaching
    Salt Lake City.

    So we have Booth, or St. Helen, meeting his oldest
    brother, Junius Brutus Booth, at San Francisco in
    1866 or 1867. Again we locate him in Lexington,
    Kentucky, in company with Col. Levan, in 1868 or
    1869, and seen by Dr. Gay in Tate county, Mississip-
    pi, in 1869. In 1872 I met and knew him intimately at
    Glenrose Mills, Texas. In 1883 Mr. Connolly saw
    him at Village Mills, Texas, and again in 1884 or
    1885 at Fort Worth, Texas, where he was recog-
    nized by Gen. Albert Pike.

    At Fort Worth we lost sight of Booth for a num-
    ber of years, but it seems from the best obtainable
    information that he drifted into the vicinity of Guthrie,
    Oklahoma Territory, but was located at He.i-
    nessy, Oklahoma Territory, in the year 1896, play-
    ing the role of a gentleman of leisure, under the name
    of George D. Ryan, where he remained until some
    time in the year 1899, when he located at El Reno,
    Oklahoma Territory, sixty-five miles south of Hen-
    nessy, stopping at the Anstein hotel, where he was
    domiciled in 1898 when I took up the matter with
    the government authorities at Washington. %

    On moving to El Reno, in 1899, Booth made de-
    posits of money, opening an account with the State
    bank of that place, under the name of David E.
    George. Assuming the character of a journeyman
    house painter he took a contract and painted a small
    cottage for Mr. Anstien, the proprietor of the An-
    stein hotel, and advertised himself as David E.
    George, house painter, in the Daily Democrat, a
    newspaper published at El Reno, but took no jobs of
    painting after that first one for Mr. Anstien, and did
    no other work in this nor any other business at El Reno.

    At the El Reno State bank, where Booth made his
    deposits as David E. George, the tintype picture of
    St. Helen (Booth), taken twelve years after the as-
    sassination of President Lincoln, was at once identi-
    fied by the officials of the bank as being a true like-
    ness of the man David E. George, who made the de-
    posits at their bank and with whom they were per-
    sonally acquainted. At the request of Mr. Bellamy,
    one of the bank officials, I went with him to another
    bank, the name of which I do not now remember,
    and was introduced to the president of this bank,
    whose name I believe was- Dr. Davis, who at once
    identified the tintype picture of St. Helen as a true
    and correct likeness of David E. George.

    After remaining at the Anstien Hotel for quite a
    long while David E. George (Booth) bought a cot-
    tage at El Eeno, paying thirty-five hundred dollars
    for it, where he installed a family by the name of
    Simmons, who were to board him for the rent of the
    place. He told the Anstiens that he was tired of
    hotel life and requested them to look for a wife for
    him, saying in a joking way that he would pay hand-
    somely for one well suiting his fancy, who would be
    willing to take charge of his cottage home.

    Mrs. Simmons also took to board with her the
    Methodist minister and his wife, the Rev. and Mrs.
    Harper. Mr. Harper is a man of means and follows
    the ministry as a matter of choice and not as a means
    of livelihood, and his wife is a lady of great refine-
    ment and culture, occupying in church and social
    circles a high position. Being thrown much together
    in the ordinary course of everyday life at the cottage
    Mrs. Harper as well as the members of the Simmons
    family grew to be on intimate terms with George
    (Booth), who fell ill with his chronic asthmatic af-
    fliction, from which he suffered a great deal, and
    was removed from his cottage home to the Kerfoot
    Hotel. Mrs. Harper, Mrs. Simmons and other kind-
    hearted ladies of the city visited George (Booth),
    who by right of birth and breeding moved in the so-
    cial circle to which he was born, regardless of his
    advertisement in the Democrat as a house painter,
    performing for him such ministries as were neces-

    Mrs. Harper makes the following statement:
    "Mr. George (Booth) had been a resident of the
    Territory for several years. He had always been
    well supplied with money, the origin or source of
    which no one knew, for from some mysterious source
    he received a regular remittance. He was a familiar
    figure in Guthrie, El Reno and Enid. My acquaint-
    ance with Mr. George led me to believe him to be a
    very different person from what he represented him-
    self to be as David E. George, the painter. He was
    eccentric, and though he claimed to be a painter of
    houses, yet he did no work. He was possessed of
    the highest degree of intelligence, had always the
    bearing of a gentleman of cultivation and refine-
    ment, and in conversation was fluent and captivat-
    ing, while he discussed subjects of the greatest mo-
    ment with learning, familiarity and ease. There
    were very few people with whom he cared to asso-
    ciate. Generally he was gloomy, though at times he
    would brighten up, sing snatches of stage songs and
    repeat Shakespeare's plays in an admirable manner.
    He was so well versed in these plays and other writ-
    ings that he would often answer questions with a

    "At one time the young people of El Reno had a
    play of some kind. One of the actors became ill and
    Mr. George (Booth) filled the place to the great ad-
    miration and entertainment of those who saw him.
    When surprise was expressed at his ability as an
    actor he replied that he had acted some when he was
    a young man.

    "Regarding his people, he told different stories.
    One time he said his father was a doctor, and he
    and a brother were the only children; that his
    mother had married again and two half brothers
    were living in the Indian Territory, their name being
    Smith, and that he had property in the Indian Ter-
    ritory. Again he seemed very lonely at times, and
    said that he had not a relative in the world. He was
    subject to fits of melancholia, was extremely sensi-
    tive, quick tempered and rather excitable. He said
    he had never married. There seemed to be some-
    thing constantly on his mind about which he thought,
    and which made him miserable. He seemed to love
    to have one understand that he was in trouble and
    appreciated sympathy.

    "He remained with the Simmons family three
    months and treated everyone with the greatest kind-
    ness and consideration. Never do I remember his
    mentioning the history of his past life or that he
    was other than David E. George until the time he
    thought he was going to die that was about the
    middle of April, 1902.

    "He had gone up town, but returned shortly and,
    entering the room where Mrs. Simmons, Mrs. Bears
    and myself were seated, he made some remarks re-
    garding the weather, which was unusually fine for
    the time of year. He then went to his room and in
    about fifteen minutes called for us, and said :

    " 'I feel as if I am going to be very sick.' He
    was lying on his bed and asked me to get him a
    mirror. For some time he gazed at himself in the

    "Mrs. Bears said she could see the pupils of his
    eyes dilate and believed that he had taken mor-
    phine. Being uneasy, she went out o. che room and
    got him a cup of coffee and insisted until he drank
    it, but when she suggested sending for a physician
    he roused himself and in a peculiar and dramatic
    manner and voice said, while holding the mirror in
    front of his face :

    " 'Stay, woman, stay. This messenger of death
    is my guest, and I desire to see the curtain of death
    fall upon the last tragic act of mine, ' which passion-
    ate utterance brought tears to our eyes. And when
    I turned to wipe the tears from my eyes he called
    me to his side and said :

    ' 'I have something to tell you. I am going to
    die in a few minutes, and I don't believe you would
    do anything to injure me. Did it ever occur to you
    that I am anything but an ordinary painter? I
    killed the best man that ever lived.' I asked him
    who it was and he answered:

    " 'Abraham Lincoln.'

    "I could not believe it. I thought him out of his
    head and asked: 'Who was Abraham Lincoln?'

    " 'Is it possible you are so ignorant as not to
    know?' he asked. He then took a pencil and paper
    and wrote down in a peculiar but legible hand the
    name, 'Abraham Lincoln,' and said:

    " 'Don't doubt it, it is true. I am John Wilkes

    " 'Am I dying now?' he asked. 'I feel cold, as if
    death's icy hand was closing my life as the forfeit
    for my crime.'

    "He then told me that he was well off. He seemed
    to be perfectly rational while talking to me. He
    knew me and knew where he was, and I believe he
    really thought in fact that he was dying, and asked
    me to keep his secret until he was dead, adding that
    if any one should find out now that he was J. "Wilkes
    Booth they would take him out and hang him, and the
    people who loved him so well now would despise him.
    He told me that people high in official life hated
    Lincoln and were implicated in his assassination. He
    said that the suspense of possibly being detected
    preyed on his mind all the time and was something
    awful, and that his life was miserable. He said that
    Mrs. Surratt was innocent and he was responsible
    for her death as well as that of several others. He
    said that he was devoted to acting, but had to give
    it up because of his crime, and the fact that he must
    remain away from the stage, when he loved the life
    and profession of acting so well, made him restless
    and ill tempered. He said he had plenty of money,
    but was compelled to play the character of a work-
    ing man to keep his mind occupied.

    "In the mean time Dr. Arnold arrived and as ft
    result of his efforts Mr. George was restored. After
    this he was very anxious for weeks regarding what
    he had told me and questioned me concerning it.
    I answered him that he had told me nothing of im-
    portance, but he seemed to know better. One day
    he saw me looking at a picture of Lincoln and asked
    me why I was looking at it. I told him that I had
    always admired Lincoln.

    " 'Is that the only reason you have for looking at
    it?' he asked, regarding me with a fierce look. A
    peculiar expression came over his face, his eyes
    flashed and he turned pale and walked off.

    "One peculiar feature of Mr. George, or Booth's,
    face was that one eyebrow was somewhat higher
    than the other. I have noticed him limp slightly,
    but he said it was rheumatism. That Mr. George had
    a past we all knew, but what his secret was remains
    unknown except in so far as he may have communi-
    cated the truth to me."

    Booth's, or George's, life at El Reno was much
    the same as I have found it at other places a simi-
    larity and accumulative evidence unmistakably es-
    tablishing his identity of person and character
    wherever he located. It seems to have been his pol-
    icy to change his name and character as often as he
    changed his place of residence. It will be remem-
    bered that when he left Hennessy for El Reno that
    he changed his name from George D. Ryan to David
    E. George, and his occupation and dress from that
    of a gentleman of leisure to that of a journeyman
    painter of houses, which character he acted to such
    perfection that, although he painted but one house,
    and did that in such an uneven and unworkmanlike
    manner as to show that he knew little or nothing
    about painting, yet people thought he knew all about
    it, and just why he did no more painting the general
    public did not understand. Upon inquiry, however,
    George, or Booth, was always ready with a satis-
    factory explanation. When the editor of the El Reno
    Democrat, in which paper he put an advertisement
    as a tradesman of house painting, at a cost of four
    dollars a month, thinking it a useless expense, so
    universally was it known that George, or Booth, did
    no such work, suggested this to him, George, or
    Booth, indignantly demanded to know if the editor
    was uneasy about the price of the card, if so he
    would pay for it in advance. The editor apologized
    and the card continued from month to month for
    two years, up to the date of the death of George.

    Booth's purpose in this is obvious. He wanted to
    keep himself constantly before the public as a paint-
    er, not that he wanted work, but to keep alive his
    identity as a painter while he played the deceptive
    character. The 'little cottage painted for Mr. An-
    stien was the stage setting to the character, the card
    in the paper was his program and he played to a suc-
    cessful finish this drama of the journeyman painter.

    Booth's idea in purchasing the cottage and estab-
    lishing a home for himself was probably because he
    thought he would enjoy it after a long and homeless
    life, alone whether on the plains, in the mountains
    or the best hotels for it was his custom to put up
    at only the best hotels wherever he went. Thus,
    when he reached El Reno he went to the Anstien
    Hotel, the best one then in the city, and as good as
    any there now. But three months of home life was
    quite sufficient for him and he moved into the Ker-
    foot Hotel, 1he newest and most up-to-date hotel in
    El Reno, which was completed after he left the An-
    stien for his cottage. Just how it was possible for
    Booth to stay at this hotel, the stopping place of
    most ol the traveling public, and escape detection
    in his changed character from " Gentleman Ryan"
    to "Journeyman House Painter George," by people
    from Hennessy, only about sixty-five miles away,
    who must have frequented this hotel, is hard to un.
    derstand. Nevertheless it is true. It would be pos-
    sible, perhaps easy, to deceive as to occupation, but
    to successfully disguise his person, and change his
    name, is remarkable and certainly required all the
    genius of the actor, John "Wilkes Booth, who played
    the change of name, person and character practically
    in the same community. At El Reno, Guthrie and
    Enid he was known as George, while at Hennessy,
    within the same section, he was known as George D.
    Ryan, and that he was not recognized and exposed
    staggers comprehension and creates disbelief, nev-
    ertheless Booth did this successfully, as he aid many
    other surprising things.

    Leaving El Reno, Booth, or George, arrived at
    Enid on the 3d day of December, 1902, and registered
    at the Grand Avenue Hotel, under the name of David
    E. George. In the meantime Mr. Harper and his
    wife had removed from El Reno to Enid, from which
    place she made the following statement:

    "On the evening of January 13th, I was startled
    and surprised by reading in the Enid Daily News
    of the suicide of David E. George, of El Reno, with
    whom I first became acquainted in March, 1900, iu
    El Reno, at the home of Mr. Simmons.

    "Mr. Harper went down on Wednesday morning,
    the 14th instant, and recognized him, and told the
    embalmers of a confession that David E. George had
    made to myself, and that they had better investi-

    "I went to the morgue with Mr. Harper on the
    15th and identified the corpse of David E. George
    as the man who had confessed to me at El Reno that
    he was John Wilkes Booth, and, as brevity has been
    enjoined on me, will reaffirm my former statement
    made in detail of David E. George's confession to me
    at El Reno, about the middle of April, 1900, as fully
    as if same were set forth herein.

    (Signed.) "MRS. E. C. HARPER."

    " Territory of Oklahoma,
    " County of Garland.

    "Mrs. E. C. Harper, first being duly sworn, upon
    her oath says that the facts were written above by
    herself; that she knows the facts she has written,
    and that the same are true.

    (Signed) "MRS. B. C. HARPER,
    ' ' Sworn to and subscribed before me this the 24th
    day of January, 1903.

    (Signed) "A. A. STRATFORD,
    "Notary Public.
    (L. S.) "My commission expires November 18th, 1906."

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  14. #29
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Indian cavalry
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Indian cavalry is the name collectively given (for lack of a better one) to the Midwest and Eastern American Indians who fought during the American Civil War, most of them on horseback and for the South.

    The Cherokee Braves Flag, as flown by Stand Watie.
    Scales'/Fry's Battalion of Cherokee Cavalry
    Meyer's Battalion of Cherokee Cavalry
    Cherokee Battalion of Infantry
    Second Cherokee Artillery

    1 Chickasaw Nation
    2 Choctaw Nation
    3 Creek Nation
    4 Seminole Nation
    5 Osage Cavalry Battalion
    6 Native American units in the US Armed forces
    7 See also
    8 External links
    Chickasaw Nation

    First Regiment of Chickasaw Infantry
    First Regiment of Chickasaw Cavalry First Colonel: William L. Hunter
    First Battalion of Chickasaw Cavalry
    Shecoe's Chickasaw Battalion of Mounted Volunteers
    Choctaw Nation

    First Regiment Choctaw & Chickasaw Mounted Rifles
    First Regiment of Choctaw Mounted Rifles
    Deneale's Regiment of Choctaw Warriors
    Second Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry
    Third Regiment of Choctaw Cavalry
    Folsom's Battalion of Choctaw Mounted Rifles
    Capt. John Wilkin's Company of Choctaw Infantry
    Northwest Frontier Command of Indian Territory
    Creek Nation

    First Creek Mounted Rifles - Col. Daniel N. McIntosh, Commanding
    Co. A - 2nd Lt. William McIntosh
    Co. C - Capt. William F. McIntosh, Commanding
    Co. G - Capt. William H. McIntosh, Commanding
    Co. G - 2nd Lt. A.H. McIntosh
    Second Creek Mounted Rifles - Lt. Col. Chilly McIntosh, Commanding
    Seminole Nation

    First Battalion Seminole Mounted Volunteers
    First Regiment Seminole Mounted Volunteers
    Osage Cavalry Battalion

    First Commander: Major Broken Arm [1][2]
    Native American units in the US Armed forces

    Indian Home Guard (American Civil War)

    See also

    Albert Pike
    Battle of Chustenahlah
    Battle of Chusto-Talasah
    Battle of Pea Ridge
    Battle of Round Mountain
    Benjamin McCulloch
    Billy Bowlegs
    Cherokee Nation Warriors Society
    Douglas H. Cooper
    Ely S. Parker
    First Confederate Congress
    Fort Smith Council
    Halleck Tustenuggee
    James G. Blunt
    John Rollin Ridge
    Keetoowah Nighthawk Society
    Lewis Downing
    Murrell Home
    Richard Montgomery Gano
    Sam Sixkiller
    Samuel B. Maxey
    Second Confederate Congress
    Confederate Government Civil War units: Indian cavalry
    External links

    LewRockwell.com article on the Cherokee Nation and the CSA
    Source page, used with permission from the author
    Native American CSA Records
    Stand Watie Civil War Regiment Roster
    Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_cavalry"
    Categories: Confederate States of America | Cherokee tribe | Native American history | Oklahoma in the American Civil War | Arkansas in the American Civil War | Bleeding Kansas | Native Americans in the Civil War | Irregular forces of the American Civil War
    This page was last modified on 20 August 2009 at 06:22.
    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.
    Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

    Knights of the Golden Circle Archive and Research
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  15. #30
    Knights of the Golden Circle

    Jul 2009
    90 times

    Re: ><>+IX~LLL+~O ~NDN~ O~+777~XI+<><

    Why the Cherokee Nation Allied Themselves With the Confederate States of America in 1861
    by Leonard M. Scruggs

    Many have no doubt heard of the valor of the Cherokee warriors under the command of Brigadier General Stand Watie in the West and of Thomas’ famous North Carolina Legion in the East during the War for Southern Independence from 1861 to 1865. But why did the Cherokees and their brethren, the Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, and Chickasaws determine to make common cause with the Confederate South against the Northern Union? To know their reasons is very instructive as to the issues underlying that tragic war. Most Americans have been propagandized rather than educated in the causes of the war, all this to justify the perpetrators and victors. Considering the Cherokee view uncovers much truth buried by decades of politically correct propaganda and allows a broader and truer perspective.

    On August 21, 1861, the Cherokee Nation by a General Convention at Tahlequah (in Oklahoma) declared its common cause with the Confederate States against the Northern Union. A treaty was concluded on October 7th between the Confederate States and the Cherokee Nation, and on October 9th, John Ross, the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation called into session the Cherokee National Committee and National Council to approve and implement that treaty and a future course of action.

    The Cherokees had at first considerable consternation over the growing conflict and desired to remain neutral. They had much common economy and contact with their Confederate neighbors, but their treaties were with the government of the United States.

    The Northern conduct of the war against their neighbors, strong repression of Northern political dissent, and the roughshod trampling of the U. S Constitution under the new regime and political powers in Washington soon changed their thinking.

    The Cherokee were perhaps the best educated and literate of the American Indian Tribes. They were also among the most Christian. Learning and wisdom were highly esteemed. They revered the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution as particularly important guarantors of their rights and freedoms. It is not surprising then that on October 28, 1861, the National Council issued a Declaration by the People of the Cherokee Nation of the Causes Which Have Impelled them to Unite Their Fortunes With Those of the Confederate States of America.

    The introductory words of this declaration strongly resembled the 1776 Declaration of Independence:

    "When circumstances beyond their control compel one people to sever the ties which have long existed between them and another state or confederacy, and to contract new alliances and establish new relations for the security of their rights and liberties, it is fit that they should publicly declare the reasons by which their action is justified."

    In the next paragraphs of their declaration the Cherokee Council noted their faithful adherence to their treaties with the United States in the past and how they had faithfully attempted neutrality until the present. But the seventh paragraph begins to delineate their alarm with Northern aggression and sympathy with the South:

    "But Providence rules the destinies of nations, and events, by inexorable necessity, overrule human resolutions."

    Comparing the relatively limited objectives and defensive nature of the Southern cause in contrast to the aggressive actions of the North they remarked of the Confederate States:

    "Disclaiming any intention to invade the Northern States, they sought only to repel the invaders from their own soil and to secure the right of governing themselves. They claimed only the privilege asserted in the Declaration of American Independence, and on which the right of Northern States themselves to self-government is formed, and altering their form of government when it became no longer tolerable and establishing new forms for the security of their liberties."

    The next paragraph noted the orderly and democratic process by which each of the Confederate States seceded. This was without violence or coercion and nowhere were liberties abridged or civilian courts and authorities made subordinate to the military. Also noted was the growing unity and success of the South against Northern aggression. The following or ninth paragraph contrasts this with ruthless and totalitarian trends in the North:

    "But in the Northern States the Cherokee people saw with alarm a violated constitution, all civil liberty put in peril, and all rules of civilized warfare and the dictates of common humanity and decency unhesitatingly disregarded. In the states which still adhered to the Union a military despotism had displaced civilian power and the laws became silent with arms. Free speech and almost free thought became a crime. The right of habeas corpus, guaranteed by the constitution, disappeared at the nod of a Secretary of State or a general of the lowest grade. The mandate of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court was at naught by the military power and this outrage on common right approved by a President sworn to support the constitution. War on the largest scale was waged, and the immense bodies of troops called into the field in the absence of any warranting it under the pretense of suppressing unlawful combination of men."

    The tenth paragraph continues the indictment of the Northern political party in power and the conduct of the Union Armies:

    "The humanities of war, which even barbarians respect, were no longer thought worthy to be observed. Foreign mercenaries and the scum of the cities and the inmates of prisons were enlisted and organized into brigades and sent into Southern States to aid in subjugating a people struggling for freedom, to burn, to plunder, and to commit the basest of outrages on the women; while the heels of armed tyranny trod upon the necks of Maryland and Missouri, and men of the highest character and position were incarcerated upon suspicion without process of law, in jails, forts, and prison ships, and even women were imprisoned by the arbitrary order of a President and Cabinet Ministers; while the press ceased to be free, and the publication of newspapers was suspended and their issues seized and destroyed; the officers and men taken prisoners in the battles were allowed to remain in captivity by the refusal of the Government to consent to an exchange of prisoners; as they had left their dead on more than one field of battle that had witnessed their defeat, to be buried and their wounded to be cared for by southern hands."

    The eleventh paragraph of the Cherokee declaration is a fairly concise summary of their grievances against the political powers now presiding over a new U. S. Government:

    "Whatever causes the Cherokee people may have had in the past to complain of some of the southern states, they cannot but feel that their interests and destiny are inseparably connected to those of the south. The war now waging is a war of Northern cupidity and fanaticism against the institution of African servitude; against the commercial freedom of the south, and against the political freedom of the states, and its objects are to annihilate the sovereignty of those states and utterly change the nature of the general government."

    The Cherokees felt they had been faithful and loyal to their treaties with the United States, but now perceived that the relationship was not reciprocal and that their very existence as a people was threatened. They had also witnessed the recent exploitation of the properties and rights of Indian tribes in Kansas, Nebraska, and Oregon, and feared that they, too, might soon become victims of Northern rapacity. Therefore, they were compelled to abrogate those treaties in defense of their people, lands, and rights. They felt the Union had already made war on them by their actions.

    Finally, appealing to their inalienable right to self-defense and self-determination as a free people, they concluded their declaration with the following words:

    "Obeying the dictates of prudence and providing for the general safety and welfare, confident of the rectitude of their intentions and true to their obligations to duty and honor, they accept the issue thus forced upon them, unite their fortunes now and forever with the Confederate States, and take up arms for the common cause, and with entire confidence of the justice of that cause and with a firm reliance upon Divine Providence, will resolutely abide the consequences.

    The Cherokees were true to their words. The last shot fired in the war east of the Mississippi was May 6, 1865. This was in an engagement at White Sulphur Springs, near Waynesville, North Carolina, of part of Thomas’ Legion against Kirk’s infamous Union raiders that had wreaked a murderous terrorism and destruction on the civilian population of Western North Carolina. Col. William H. Thomas’ Legion was originally predominantly Cherokee, but had also accrued a large number of North Carolina mountain men. On June 23, 1865, in what was the last land battle of the war, Confederate Brigadier General and Cherokee Chief, Stand Watie, finally surrendered his predominantly Cherokee, Oklahoma Indian force to the Union.

    The issues as the Cherokees saw them were 1) self-defense against Northern aggression, both for themselves and their fellow Confederates, 2) the right of self-determination by a free people, 3) protection of their heritage, 4) preservation of their political rights under a constitutional government of law 5) a strong desire to retain the principles of limited government and decentralized power guaranteed by the Constitution, 6) protection of their economic rights and welfare, 7) dismay at the despotism of the party and leaders now in command of the U. S. Government, 8) dismay at the ruthless disregard of commonly accepted rules of warfare by the Union, especially their treatment of civilians and non-combatants, 9) a fear of economic exploitation by corrupt politicians and their supporters based on observed past experience, and 10) alarm at the self-righteous and extreme, punitive, and vengeful pronouncements on the slavery issue voiced by the radical abolitionists and supported by many Northern politicians, journalists, social, and religious (mostly Unitarian) leaders. It should be noted here that some of the Cherokees owned slaves, but the practice was not extensive.

    The Cherokee Declaration of October 1861 uncovers a far more complex set of "Civil War" issues than most Americans have been taught. Rediscovered truth is not always welcome. Indeed some of the issues here are so distressing that the general academic, media, and public reaction is to rebury them or shout them down as politically incorrect.

    The notion that slavery was the only real or even principal cause of the war is very politically correct and widely held, but historically ignorant. It has served, however, as a convenient ex post facto justification for the war and its conduct. Slavery was an issue, and it was related to many other issues, but it was by no means the only issue, or even the most important underlying issue. It was not even an issue in the way most people think of it. Only about 25% of Southern households owned slaves. For most people, North and South, the slavery issue was not so much whether to keep it or not, but how to phase it out without causing economic and social disruption and disaster. Unfortunately the Southern and Cherokee fear of the radical abolitionists turned out to be well founded.

    After the Reconstruction Act was passed in 1867 the radical abolitionists and radical Republicans were able to issue in a shameful era of politically punitive and economically exploitive oppression in the South, the results of which lasted many years, and even today are not yet completely erased.

    The Cherokee were and are a remarkable people who have impacted the American heritage far beyond their numbers. We can be especially grateful that they made a well thought out and articulate declaration for supporting and joining the Confederate cause in 1861.


    Emmett Starr, History of the Cherokee Indians, published by the Warden Company, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1921. Reprinted by Kraus Reprint Company, Millwood, New York, 1977.
    Hattie Caldwell Davis, Civil War Letters and Memories from the Great Smoky Mountains, Second Edition published by the author, Maggie Valley, NC, 1999.

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